In 1840 there was a competition for the best project of a church which would be placed upon the Russian warriors bed of honor. And in 1841 the project of architect J. I. Charlemagne was approved; in 1848 the project was improved and finished. The foundation started in 1852. The church was blessed in 1856 in honor of Saint Samson the Hospitable. J. S. Studienko gave money for the church building. The stone rectangular building of the church was crowned by central dome and four smaller decorative domes at corners.
In 1895 there was a reconstruction of the church; the new project was created by architect N. Nikonov. According to the new project the church was shaped like a cross with equal ends (width and length are 20,2 m.; high is 14,2 m.).
Before the celebration of the Battle bicentenary, there was placed marble decorative iconostasis with color mosaic (Moscow firm of Menzioni) and built a belfry (architect S. B. Nosov); the belfry was demounted in 1930. The interior was painted by artists headed by O. J. Sokol. On the church Eastern front there was placed a portrait of Peter I, praying before the Battle (the picture was lost); below there is a marble plate with a text of troops order.
In 1948 Sampsonyyvska church was closed. In 1990 it was given to Orthodox community.